Do you know what the best pruning saw is? I am sure gardeners or people who love gardening will know this tool. Pruning saws with modern and outstanding functions have supported gardeners to cut most branches or stems easily and effectively. Moreover, it will also help you pruning or shaping the trees in your garden to become more aesthetic and beautiful. After listening to its outstanding advantages, you want to get one, right? It has many truly outstanding functions. However, if you do not understand how to use it properly, you will damage or destroy it quickly. Therefore, do not rush. Please read this article. I will discuss how to use the pruning saw and some notes you need to know before working on it. I don’t make you wait any longer. Let’s find out.


Notes you need to know when pruning trees with a saw

Protective gear: The protective gear that you need to equip before using the saw to prune is protective clothing, gloves, glasses. You’re thinking that why you have to waste your time wearing them, right? Nobody makes you wear them if you don’t want to. However, if you are injured by a piece of wood that accidentally catches your eye and body, then you will deeply regret your decision. Therefore, if you take a little time, you will always ensure your body. Why don’t you follow? You also need to wear extra protective shoes. Because if you cut in the garden where there can be many dangerous things on the ground.

Careful: It means when you want to cut any branch or stem that you find ugly or redundant. You need to be careful not to accidentally cut into the branches and beautiful trunks nearby. Because, more than any other cutting tool, pruning saws are easy to slip and can quickly hurt or destroy wood if you’re not careful. Therefore, be mindful of this risk in your mind. You will not be able to save it.

Choose a comfortable direction to cut: You can trim in different directions depending on your convenience and comfort. However, according to many people who have the experience that the direction that to achieve the best and most effective pruning angle is from the top down. Because that way helps you use gravity to cut the wood. Lead to helps you to cut straight angles easily and without any difficulties.

Check the quality of wood before cutting: This step is very important and is often not predicted by many gardeners. Why do you need to check the quality? Many thick or long branches of considerable weight will likely break and tear early before you can finish cutting with a saw. In fact, due to external factors, many branches outside looked quite normal and quality but inside it was destroyed. Therefore, to prevent a tree from tearing or breaking, you must cleverly remove this weight before starting the final cut at the position you have chosen.

Start your final cut with a start groove: Why do you need to do that? Because, if you do not cut with a groove, the cut of the saw will likely slip off the desired cutting position. Slipping is a risk that often occurs on non-horizontal branches.

How to pruning properly

When beginning to prune: After you understand the note, now is the time to start pruning your desired branch or tree. Remember to cut from the top down at a fast speed and keep the force stable enough to control so as not to slip and hurt nearby wood or yourself. Another effective method of cutting is to cut the wood as if you were pulling something. It means you use the saw to bite into the wood and then pull and push it back slightly.

Finishing the cutting process: Cut until the branch is clean according to your wishes. Sometimes, there will be some errors that occur as some rough wood will be left at the bottom of your cut. To resolve the error and to achieve a perfect and smooth cut, you can scrape off the stain by pressing the blade straight into the fault and cutting it off.

Other tips and cautions when using pruning saws

About the cutting way: The basic factor for making beautiful cuts is that you should control comfortably. It means working in the most comfortable position. Perform pushing when cutting (as I said above) and pull with a slanted body so that large cuts can be cut. Or at least use your entire arm, not just your wrists and elbows, to get the best drag. Maintaining power makes mistakes less likely to occur. And make you become a happier gardener.

 Keep the blade straight: If the blade is bent when cutting, I’m sure you are under a lot of pressure when you push it. Or you can’t pull straight, can you? Do not rush, You slowly pull out the saw and return to a straight cut. Then control the force and slowly increase your speed as usual.

Working close to the ground: When you need to run close to the ground, such as pruning in places with thick, old wood of a primitive shrub, then with any tool, try to keep the blade from touching the ground.  Because sand and gravel in the soil will quickly get your blades dirty and blunt.

Put your saw in the pocket and put on your belt: This is an effective way to protect your body. In case, you cut the tree on a high position. After cutting and especially when climbing down, you should put a saw in a bag to avoid injury.

Clean your saw before storing it: Not only for saws but all other tools you have to pay attention to clean before you store it. If you don’t clean it, wood chips and dirt will cling to it. After a while, your saw will quickly rust and become unusable.

In conclusion

I have finished my presentation on how to use the pruning saw effectively. And give some tips and notes you need to know when using. Have you found the information I provided useful to you? I hope that is helpful to you. Final. thank you for taking the time to read this article. If you want to buy pruning saws, you should choose reputable brands and facilities to ensure quality.

Do you know what blackout curtains are? I am sure that most of you know this type of curtain. Maybe you’ve heard someone mention them in a certain store or maybe you have a friend with a friend who accidentally mentioned them. You are wondering why is it mentioned so much? Anywhere on the road or at work, you see people talking about this curtain.

That is understandable, the best blackout curtains are soft and durable curtains with high-quality fabric and highly effective in darkening the room, insulation, noise reduction, energy saving. and especially it is used very effectively in protecting privacy. Besides, it not only supports you block the sunlight from outside but these curtains also contribute to accentuate your room to become more outstanding and aesthetic

Moreover, this curtain is made of pure three-color woven fabric without chemical coating, so it is not dangerous to human health. Besides, these magic curtains can block 90% of sunlight and prevent 100% of UV rays from entering your space. Authorized laboratory testing shows that the curtains are vinyl-free and environmentally friendly, safe for everyone, especially for children. However, no product is 100 percent perfect. These curtains certainly have some limitations.

Do you want to understand more about the benefits and drawbacks of this product?  In this article, I will discuss in detail about its advantages and disadvantages so that you can consider and make a decision whether to buy or not. I don’t take much time for you anymore, Let’s start to find out.

blackout curtains
blackout curtains

Advantages of Blackout curtains

Blackout curtains make your room quieter: On the market today, blackout curtains are created with a variety of colors, materials and different designs that are easy for customers to choose. Especially with a thick material with three coats, it support to prevent noise most completely. For example. You live in the city, or in places where there is a lot of noise from vehicles, the noise of pedestrians on the road. The noise makes people feel extremely uncomfortable and tired. Especially for small children who even have a little noise makes them startled and woke up. Equipping blackout curtains is the best way to solve the problem for you. They can limit outside noise from entering your home by up to 90 percent. Therefore, no matter how loud the outside noise is, it will not influence your daily life or sleep.

Blackout curtains help you save on electricity bills: Can you believe it? Besides, reducing noise, this type of curtain can make your room always cool. For example, you live in a hot climate, you can’t afford to leave the air conditioner for a second. So, each month you have to pay a large price for the electricity bill.  The blackout curtains will help you resolve this problem. These curtains can help keep the heat on hot days without turning on the air conditioner. Why is it possible to do so? Simply as I said above, it makes up to 90 percent of the light from the sun. The main thing that makes your room always in a stable state and cool. That also means you can save on air conditioner bills!

Curtains assist you to sleep better: As you know, our bodies can never fully rest when sunlight enters the room, which is the reason that you should sleep with lights turned off, but that is only suitable for the night. If you need to take a nap? Or what if you were awakened early in the morning by the light? Dark-colored curtains will help you. These opaque curtains can help block 99% of the light from entering your room, so you can have a great night’s sleep and wake up energetic. Especially for women, a good night’s sleep will make you have more beautiful skin.

The blackout curtain gives you maximum privacy: Today when privacy invasion is more of a concern and threat than ever before. Many cases of filming secretly through windows or breaking into houses that making many people scared and worried, especially women. Therefore, choosing curtains to keep privacy is what most people care about. The common curtains cannot keep your privacy, people can still see your shadow from the outside. Therefore, with thick and durable material, blackout curtains can be an ideal item to shield the inside of your house from prying eyes.

Durable: Unlike most other curtains, blackout curtains come with a thick coating and do not use chemical coatings that helping customers feel secure about their health. Besides, layers are not only responsible for blocking light, but also ensuring the durability of the furniture in your home. Moreover, they have a better life span than other types of curtains up to 3 to 4 years, which makes them a worthwhile investment.

Safer for children: Traditional curtains have lots of miscellaneous wires. For families with young children who are extremely addicted, they can be injured if caught in those cords. Therefore, understanding the worries of most parents, the designers have produced blackout curtains that are compact and have no wires that make you feel comfortable when your children play around the curtains.

Some disadvantages of blackout curtains

Darkens the room: It has the advantage of supporting you to block about 90 percent of the light. However, that is also its drawback. When it prevents out the light, your room will become dark and you will not be able to see anything in the room. It could lead to you being injured by bumping into furniture.

Too monotonous: A blackout curtain is usually only a single style and often has less color for you to choose. Therefore, it makes your room more monotonous and tedious. To revitalize it, you can purchase some accessories such as a cloth border attached to its head, or choose a thin fabric or lace to go behind the blackout curtains. I am sure they will change your bedroom significantly.

Expensive: Because it has many outstanding advantages, the cost of this type of curtain can be more expensive than other the curtain. It depends on your budget. You can decide whether to buy or not.

In conclusion

I have finished the presentation on the advantages and disadvantages of blackout curtains. You can see they have more advantages than disadvantages, right? If you are planning to purchase a curtain for your family,  you can refer to the information here and make the best decision. You can share the information you collect here with friends and family. Finally, thank you for taking the time to read the entire article.

Along with the strong development of the processing, manufacturing, and trading of furniture, fine arts, and furniture processing industry, carpentry has become popular today. This profession contributes to creating jobs and stable incomes for the much-unskilled labor force of our country, but this profession also brings significant effects on people. When coming into contact with wood mulch, dirt generated by wood processing and processing will affect human health. Therefore, finding an effective dust mask is extremely necessary and the Japanese Koken dust mask is the most optimal solution for carpenters, both convenient and easy to use.

Agents and appropriate labor protection equipment

It is not uncommon to enter any wood processing factory or manufacturing facility as sawdust. The process of sawing and splitting wood into blocks generates a lot of dust and sawdust.

The preparation stage according to the model, processing products and finishing products generates a lot of other types of dust due to the planing, turning, and polishing of paper products.

The color spraying stage is the last stage after the product is completed. The typical smell of oil spraying or spraying products is very aromatic but very toxic; it spreads gas vapor, color into the air and the person who inhales is the person who sprays paint.
Sawdust, wood paint smell are the main cause of respiratory diseases, nasopharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, atopic dermatitis … so dust masks are the best solution and indispensable. It helps to prevent wood dust as well as helps to prevent toxic odors caused by wood paint.

Koken dust masks – famous brands in Japan

The gas mask, also known as the Koken cave’s anti-toxic mask from Japan, is a suitable product for workers in polluted environments, farmers who use plant protection products, pesticides, people working in the environment exposed to dust like carpentry … the wood smell, toxic smells will greatly affect our health. This Koken respirator product is of high quality, ensuring very good for our health, especially those directly exposed to such harmful substances as carpenters, for example.

This dust mask for woodworking is made of Silicon plastic and Poly film, skin-friendly, hypoallergenic. The kit includes a blue mask and an activated carbon filter to help clean the toxic gases, dirt accumulated in the air and the working environment harmful to human health.

The outstanding advantage of this Japanese Koken mask

  • The lightweight, less than 100grams, when we install the activated carbon filter, the volume of the product also increases insignificantly at only 150 – 170gram, very light.
  • The plastic part of the mask is soft and pliable, the silicon part is suitable for all kinds of faces, has a wire to adjust the size, helps to fit the face, and especially with this product, the steam does not stand on the face causing discomfort to the user.
  • With activated carbon and tiny texture used in the filter of the mask helps to filter the air optimally and effectively, it helps the user breathe gently and easily, without causing breathing difficulties as some other types of masks.
  • This Koken mask kit is suitable for carpenters because they are very compact with a built-in matching check kit, a slightly downward outlet, no dew condensation.
  • This mask can be attached to many different types of filters and attached to the dust filter so that users can easily replace and suit different types of contact environments.
  • The product quality is very good and durable as they are manufactured as genuine products in Japan.

Carpentry is often a dangerous job. Working in a variety of chemical environments, sawdust, wood dust … and especially the types of wood and carpentry hazards including mechanical, chemical and paint hazards, all of what will make the health of people carpenters affected, in the long term susceptible to diseases related to respiratory systems such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, bronchitis … So the use of a lightweight and convenient respirator masks such as anti-mask Dust or Japanese anti-poison mask Koken is extremely necessary for carpenters. The Japanese Koken Gas Mask is the strange face, the ideal mask – a companion to protect the health of carpenters.

It can be seen that the pliers are considered as a name that many of us know and use. With the continuous development of science and technology, people have already invested a lot of modern machines and devices that play an important role in the development of each country in the world. People need to invent so many different modern machines and devices to respond to many demands of people that is changing every day. The pliers are considered as one of the modern devices that are designed by the intelligence and creation of human nowadays. There are so many different types of pliers on the market nowadays. So in this article, I will introduce to you the structure and advantages of one of them that called the plucking wire pliers.

plucking wire pliers

Some general information about the plucking wire pliers

What are the plucking wire pliers? I think that many of us want to know the answer to this question. So let’s follow my article to understand more about this tool. Firstly, the plucking wire pliers are a handheld tool that is designed to hold objects firmly and pluck wire. Moreover, the plucking wire pliers are also useful for bending and compressing a wide range of materials. It can not deny that nowadays we can easily buy the plucking wire pliers set in any stores all over the world. The reason is that there are so many pliers on our market with so many different types, functions, and sizes. That makes us have a lot of chances to choose the best pliers set for our needs in working. However, that also makes us more difficult to select the appropriate pliers for our needs because we have to stand before an overwhelming choice.

The general structure of the plucking wire pliers

Generally, most of the pliers have a similarity about the structure. Both of the pliers contain two main parts including the head of pliers and the handle part. The head of pliers is made of hard steel. That is one of the important advantages of the plucking wire pliers. Do you know why? Because with the hard steel in the head, the plucking wire pliers will have high resistance during working and can work with hard materials and objects. Besides, the handle part of this tool is made of high- quality plastic that helps us ensure maximum safety when using this tool. Moreover, the handle part can be resistant to slip during working.

Some prominent advantages of the plucking wire in our life

We can see that the plucking wire pliers play an important role in the development of our society. So what makes the plucking wire pliers so popular and widely used by many people?. Let’s follow my article because I will show you the important advantages of this tool here.

  • The plucking wire pliers bring us high efficiency: that is one of the most important reasons that make this tool is believed to use by many people. We can see that the plucking wire pliers are quite special in the electricity industry. The plucking wire pliers can be considered as one of the most important tools in the box tool of each electrician nowadays. The plucking wire pliers can work with high speed and high efficiency because of its special structure that I have already shared in the above paragraph. This device can pluck a single-core or multiple-core wire. Moreover, the plucking wire pliers can also pluck the head of the cord or the middle of the wire that depends on your needs. So we can see that the plucking wire pliers are very convenient in our life.
  • The plucking wire pliers are very easy to use: because this device is designed with a special form that is a compact and simple design, it is very easy for us to use. Besides, the plucking wire pliers are suitable for all ages to use from young people to old people. The plucking wire pliers are not only easy to use but also safe for users because the handle part of this tool is made of high- quality plastic that has good insulation ability. With a small size and light-weight, I think the plucking wire pliers will be the best choice for the electricians to use. Because in particular, the work of each electrician is to move a lot or they have to work with high altitudes, they need to have a small device with light-weight.
  • The plucking wire pliers are quite cheap on the market nowadays: we can see that most of the pliers can be considered as cheap products. Although the plucking wire pliers are quite cheap, this tool can bring us high efficiency. That is also one of the most important reasons that make users enjoy using this tool.

In conclusion

I have already shown you the structure and benefits of the plucking wire pliers. I hope you can get them and choose the appropriate pliers for your needs.


Although AirPower just a kind of wireless charging, the background behind it is a long term drama making thousands people fluctuate.

What is AirPower?

AirPower is a kind of wireless charging with special design for providing power of electricity to several Apples’ devices. Its’ first announcement was September 2017, the same month with Iphone X, smartphone that marked the evolution of Apple Inc. The biggest difference of AirPower among various of wireless charging devices is that can be used to charge multiple devices include iPhone, AirPods and Apple Watch with every path in its’ surface.

The Trigger

After 1,5 year of the delay, on today morning (March 30, 2019),  Apple officially gets rid of the idea of AirPower. Hence, they have no intention of development of it. Besides, Mr. Dan Riccio, the senior vice president of Apple Inc said that AirPower was have not been seen any of Apples’ qualifications of high standard. As a result, they cancelled the project of producing AirPower.

Is it Normal in Technology Industry?

In Tech field, the fact that a particular, even famous company can establish and suddenly get rid of a product is not hard to find, such as Wired Inc with the Optimus keyboard 103, the killer AirPod of  Zune and Skype for Symbians’ cellphone.

The Outstanding Inc

But this is Apple, the most valuable company of Technology field with the viral waves among countries all over the world. Thus, do not forget that on the one side, Apple has a massive users, in other words is fan. On the other hand, as many as Apples’ fan is the haters (anti-fan), they always waiting for the moment to criticize and throw Apples’ reputation to the garbage dump. This lead to the consequence that the event of cancelled AirPower is perfect chance for the paparazi and anti-fan together point the gun to Apples’ head with a bullet inside. In other word, Apple should be ready for a shot of criticism ahead to their brain.

The Fluctuation from Apples’ Users

From the side of the customer, they are tremendously feeling annoyed with this decision of Apple Inc. Because the story behind AirPower is a long drama with the sadness, long waiting process to the Apples’ clients. They spent too much time waiting for the oblivious after the first establishment of AirPower for nearly 2 years, then take back the disappointed mix with angry. The final result is they got a “troll” from Apple with just one sentence of speaking of the vice senior president of Apple Inc.

The Process of AirPower to Its’ Grave

I will introduce to you guys in this article the process leads to the final result that AirPower can never be marketed.

The First Established of AirPower

It was a day on September of 2017, when Apple announce that AirPower will be released in 2018. It is all because of iPhone 8 and iPhone X, the two devices support the process of wireless charging evolution. In the same line of the wishes from the customers, Apple aggressively promised to produce a product that will charge their devices with wireless protocol, and the most important part is it will be made by Apple. Along with AirPower, Apple also pronounced that there will be a project to release the wireless charging for AirPods only “in the future”.

The Deadline

It was the end of 2018, but Apple still has no sight of AirPower, event just a trailer or pre-release product, or even the demo version of it. Occasionally, there was a “trustworthy” source said that “Apple will start to market AirPower in …”, but when that day coming, still the zero number.

The March, 2018

Apple released a few new devices such as iPhone 8 with red color and Leather Folio case for iPhone X. Sight of AirPower – equal to a tree hollow spaces.

The June, 2018

Mark Gurman, the writer of Bloomberg, who famous with several information from Apple wrote that Apple had vision for marketing AirPower on September the same year. The paper of Gurman wrote that Apple met some difficulties from the step to develop AirPower related to the temperature.  It was believed that the engineers from Apple was trying to figure out this problem to make sure not thing will go wrong to the direction of them.

The September, 2018

The biggest event of Apple every year happened. Apple showed to their clients the new generation of iPhone are iPhone XS and iPhone XR. In contract, no words for AirPower. After this event, Apple put all the information related to AirPower out from their website. The users can not find anything with the word “AirPower”. Amazingly, in the introduction of how to use iPhone still remain AirPower information. It started to confuse the consumer of Apple Inc.

The Employees for AirPower Project

To continue the drama, Apple employs people for the project of wireless charging, include AirPower project.

The Fake News

Tons of new appeared on Twitter, making sure that AirPower are in the process of representation. The master of prediction of Apple, Mr. Ming-Chi Kuo  said that AirPower could show up at late 2018 or the first of 2019. This report of him revealed the hope that AirPower was ready to on the tray of Apple stores. Hence, various of positive prediction of AirPower in the new year of 2019 were appeared. Some of them from HongKong Precision, the old partner of Apple in charge of produced AirPods and cable USB-C. Even Wall Street Journal wrote that Apple had enough certification for selling AirPower. Moreover, some code sentences in IOS 12.2 Beta 6 have the word “AirPower”.

The Final Ending

As written from the header of this article, AirPower project are officially cancelled forever. This is a good lesson of precaution for both Apple Inc and the consumers. Do not forget that Tech field is not that easy you see in the promises. It is a difficult field, with a hilly road to achieve the new technologies, so be prepare for the bad news happened. All in all, Apple or any company of tech just a group of people, they are just human, there not thing you can do at that situation. Be careful and be sympathetic to their failures. By the way, checkout the sponsor of this article are the wood level and the best woodworking books to encourage us. Thank you for your reading!


Science is a living social system with multiple forces that influence its success, so all pieces must be considered to ensure that the system will thrive. Four themes in particular emerged repeatedly in response to the three key questions asked during the exploratory conversations. Underscoring all of the opportunities and challenges was a desire that we consider how to do the following things. By the way, please take a look at wood level and the Best Woodworking Books to support us.

Ensure a Dynamic and Thriving Science

A collaborative and adaptable scientific community will be able to respond to emerging challenges.

Build Public Understanding of Science As a Tool Used by Society

Science is an important element of society, with many benefits and potential risks. There is a need for science to have a relationship with the public that is built on trust in the power of the processes of science to provide reliable information that makes decision-making smarter and easier.

Build an Effective and Diverse Professional Community

The scientific workforce needs multiple talents and diverse perspectives to advance research, education, and communication of science with society in innovative ways.

Inform Public Policy Through Effective Relationships with Policymakers.

Policymakers need access to vetted information on which they can base informed decisions that balance the potential benefits and risks of new scientific developments with the needs of society.

Sticky issues

If we consider these four results  as the key elements at the root of a thriving societal scientific endeavor, how do we get  there?  How might  we reconsider how we, the research community, reinforce, recognize, and promote professionals for their contributions? How do we organize research and educational units and professional teams? How do we educate students to be prepared to engage in this new, multidisciplinary world of modern biology? How do we assess what diverse skills and perspectives are required to advance science? Finally, how do we train the diverse community of professionals needed to communicate science to the public?


These are the types of questions and framework that will empower us to leverage the opportunities created by a changing science and society to reconfigure our living social system in a way that will increase our over- all success at building a thriving life sciences endeavor. It is clear that we are not starting with a blank  slate. The life sciences have self-organized and evolved to become a  complex and dynamic professional system with deep roots and long-held practices that may or may not  work  toward the outcomes that we really want to achieve. The life sciences have a rich professional culture of expectations and risk aversion, many stakeholders and professional entities that influence success, and a professional training system that is difficult to change. In listening to our interview respondents and the subsequent discussion among the leaders, there were three particularly sticky issues that are worth noting as obstacles that require extra investment by life scientists.

There is An Imperative For a Cross-cutting Life Science Community

The four challenge themes that emerged through AIBS’s exploratory conversations are ones that are shared broadly by the varied sub-disciplinary communities of the biological sciences. The needs of the biological sciences require that a broad view be maintained and communicated effectively; common outcomes be shared; and success be measured through a coordinated, cooperative leadership. To seize the opportunities available to us, how will the life sciences stimulate leadership to create a stronger, more cooperative community.

Benefit in Reducing Barriers to Ensure Opportunities For Innovation at The Interfaces

Life sciences research is unlimited  by  borders, but borders are common in our cur- rent structure. How do we promote robust basic research alongside cooperative, innovative, creative, new models in which we embrace the trans-disciplinary nature of science? Beyond developing specific scientific skill sets, how do we recognize and prepare all types of professional scientists to advance science through communication and advocacy at public interfaces? To rapidly embrace the opportunities of today and tomorrow’s science, how can we be fearless about trying new tactics to reach our desired outcomes?

Empower The Public with The Tools and Information of Science

Most of the individuals who were inter- viewed during our exploratory conversations consider the public to be the most significant stakeholders in our science. They also expressed concern about the risks that emerge when the public is disconnected from the con- text of science in society and lacks an understanding and appreciation for how science works, what scientists do, and why science matters. There is a need for a relationship with the public that is built on trust in the power of the processes of science to provide reliable information that makes decision-making smarter and easier. A high priority of the scientific community  should  be to increase public  understanding of how to be an informed participant in the processes of science. That mes- sage should resound not just from scientists but through all of the professionals who bring science to the public using their diverse talents. How  do we improve communication with our most valuable stakeholders to ensure that science benefits society and that the public supports science


The questions that society requires science to answer now and in the coming decades are increasingly complex, and at the same time, the tools of science are becoming increasingly accessible to the broader public. What were previously activities restricted to a few are now being enriched by significant citizen participation, even in the garages of science-interested citizens exploring their curiosities in a DIY do it yourself way. And that is happening not just in the United States. We live in an increasingly globalized world, with greater accessibility to some scientific tools and data than ever before. The technological and cost barriers are dropping rapidly, which changes the innovation ecosystem of biology who can play and what is possible.

Change within Science

Nearly every per- son interviewed by AIBS noted that the greatest challenges and opportunities of modern life science include the shift to cross-disciplinary science and the new requirements to manage the vast amounts of data being produced. There are many dimensions to these changes.

Multidisciplinary Perspective

Although the life sciences, broadly, are crucially important  to  answer- ing the emerging scientific questions, there is a crucial need  for  “respect for a multidisciplinary perspective. We need to take the time to listen to one another and see what each has to offer the other. We need everyone (across all sciences) working together.

New Trend

There is a trend toward big science a significant force in how we organize and collaborate to answer questions. Big data, trans-disciplinary research, and bio-complexity are crucial areas for investment, but nearly all of the respondents cautioned that investment in the new should not be undertaken at the cost of continuing traditional disciplinary research. The slow pace of accumulation of essential natural history knowledge for many economically important species, from fisheries to crop pests, has repeatedly hindered the development of robust, predictive policies that would benefit humanity. In many industries, this has resulted in repeated failures of sustainable management, even though these attractive systems are the very ones for which natural history knowledge should be most complete.

Changing Intellectual

There is a changing intellectual property structure in the life sciences. It is still the case that each institution has its own rules for collaboration, on intellectual property, and concerning the right to claim something as one’s own. Competitiveness can potentially squelch sharing, which may inhibit collaboration. The old model  was,  for example, to develop a drug and then “patent the hell out of it. The new and potentially more collaborative model involves open-source systems using repositories of standardized biological parts that can be readily accessed and shared.

A Vision

A significant investment is being made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in cyber-infrastructure. The Cyber-infrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering is a funding mechanism designed to provide  a comprehensive, integrated, sustain- able, and secure cyber-infrastructure to accelerate research and education and new functional capabilities in computational and data-intensive science and engineering, thereby transforming our ability to effectively address and solve the many complex problems facing science and society. A vision and strategy for that infrastructure was outlined and describes for the complexity of the task, including meeting increased storage demands, long-term sustainability, curation, and providing new analysis that will drive discovery.

Great Advances

Great advances in the life and geosciences have been made in developing a cyber-infrastructure that meets the inseparability and integration requirements considered necessary for this global data currency. “Finding solutions to these last two pieces is the holy grail in unlocking the challenge, an initiative to create  a community-driven knowledge and data management system for the geosciences. His team also co-directs an international planning effort for global e-infrastructure and data management. Allison likens the emerging cyber-infrastructure to the data version of the World Wide Web and says that the research community is well on its way to having that capacity up and running, noting that “it’s within our reach that a global cyber-infrastructure will be accessible and usable for the 90% of individual scientific investigators who constitute the long tail of scientists who don’t need or use supercomputers.


Beyond the infrastructure itself, concerns expressed by a senior science adviser at NSF highlight the fact that creating such an infrastructure has broad implications for how we approach scientific workforce and training needs. We are going to need new quantification methods to integrate everything. We will need enough modeling skills to see what the data can show us. The biologist of the future will need to be able to address this, but the question is [whether] our curricula really prepare students for that. How are we going to train the biologist of the future? How are they going to learn the language of science, the culture of science have an understanding across the board? Scientists must have a strong grounding in quantitative skills and related areas from day one. It is important to train individuals with a broad set of skills to enable them to deal with complex systems and the overall complexity of life.

Change within Society

Peter Linett, owner of a start-up business called Culture Kettle, holds a unique position as a market researcher who helps cultural institutions (in both the arts and the sciences) understand the mechanisms by which the changing dynamics of how people interact in the twenty-first century affect how institutions might alter their business models to stay relevant.


In his presentation to science festival leaders at the International Public Science Events Conference 2014,  Linett described what he sees as a moment of punctuated equilibrium in the arc of culture. Linett gave detail to this metaphor: Following a period of relative stability from the late nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century, technology and other less tangible forces have led to the current period of rapid change a flurry of innovation, experimentation, and new models of production and consumption premised on new cultural assumptions and values very different from those of the previous period. Linett added that, once we settle into them, those new values and approaches may prove durable for a number of decades, at least fundamentally (although technology will continue to reshape things rapidly on the surface). We may enter a long period of relative stability, a twenty-first-century set of cultural norms. But for now, we are in that transitional period, which can be especially difficult for the institutions and producers of culture that excelled in the previous period. These are not easy times, but they are exciting.


The relatively high cost of treating and delivering water has led many world governments to subsidize water for agriculture and household use. For example, some U.S. farmers pay as little as 1¢ to 5¢/1000 liters they use in irrigation, while the public pays from 30¢ to 80¢ per 1000 liters of treated water for personal use. Farmers in the Imperial Irrigation District of California pay $15.50 in delivery fees for 1.2 million liters of water. Some investigators suggest that if U.S. farmers paid the full cost of water, they would have to conserve and manage irrigation water more effectively.

Construction Cost

The construction cost subsidy for federally-subsidized western U.S. irrigated cropland amounts to about $5,000 per hectare, and represents an annual construction cost subsidy of about $440 per ha/yr over the life of the project. The total annual government subsidy is estimated to range from $2.5 billion to $4.4 billion for the 4.5 million hectares of irrigated land in the western United States. Worldwide, from f94 to 1998 governmental water subsidies totaled $45 billion per year for non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and $15 billion for OECD counties. During the same period, agricultural subsidies per year total $65 billion for non-OECD and $355 billion for OECD countries.

Fair Water Pricing

The objectives of fair water pricing are: to seek revenue to pay for the operations and maintenance of water availability;  improve water-use efficiency; and recover the full costs of water pumping and treatment. However, in general there appear to be problems with some private, for profit companies operating water systems for communities and regions. Often the companies operate as monopolies which can lead to unfair pricing practices.

Energy Prices

If U.S. prices of gasoline and diesel energy increase to approximately $10 per gallon, it follows that irrigation costs will continue to escalate from the current $2.9 billion per year. Since vegetable and fruit crops return more per dollar invested in irrigation water than field crops, farmers may have to reassess the crops they grow. For example, in Israel 1000 liters of water from irrigation produces 79¢ worth of groundnuts and 57¢ worth of tomatoes, but only 13¢ worth of corn grain and 12¢ worth of wheat.

Conflicts over Water Use

The rapid rise in withdrawal of freshwater for agricultural irrigation and for other uses that have accompanied population growth has spurred serious conflicts over water resources both within and between countries. In part the conflicts over fresh water is due to the sharing of fresh water by countries and regions. Currently there are 263 transboundary river basins sharing water resources. Worldwide such conflicts have increased from an average of 5 per year in the 1980s to 22 in 2000. In 23 countries where data are available, conflicts related to agricultural use of water cost an estimated $55 billion between 1990 and 1997.

Water Sources

At least 20 nations obtain more than half their water from rivers that cross national boundaries, and 14 countries receive 70% or more of their surface water resources from rivers that are outside their borders. For example, Egypt obtains 97% of its freshwater from the Nile River, the second longest in the world, which is also shared by the Sudan, Ethiopia, Egypt, Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zaire, Eritrea, and Uganda. Indeed, the Nile River is so overused that during parts of the year little or no freshwater reaches the Mediterranean Sea.

Conflicts over Water

Historically, the Middle East region has had the most conflicts over water, largely because it has less available water per capital than most other regions, and every major river crosses international borders. Furthermore, the human populations in these countries are increasing rapidly, some having doubled in the last 20 to 25 years, placing additional stress on the difficult political climate.

River Water Sources

The distribution of river water also creates conflicts between several U.S. states as well as problems between the U.S. and Mexico. California, Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, and Mexico all depend on Colorado River water. In a normal year, little water reaches Mexico, and little or no water reaches the Gulf of California.

Conserving Water Resources

Conserving world water must be a priority of individuals, communities, and countries. An important approach is to find ways to facilitate the percolation of rainfall into the soil instead of allowing it to runoff into streams and rivers. For example, the increased use of trees and shrubs make it possible to catch and slow water runoff by 10% to 20%, thereby conserving water before it reaches streams, rivers, and lakes. This approach also reduces flooding.


Maintaining crop, livestock, and forest production requires conserving all water resources available, including rainfall. Some practical strategies that support water conservation for crop production include: monitoring soil water content; adjusting water application needs to specific crops; applying organic mulches to prevent water loss and improve water peculation, through reduced water runoff and evaporation; using crop rotations that reduce water runoff; preventing the removal of biomass from land; increasing use of trees and shrubs to slow water runoff; and employing precision irrigation in water delivery systems, such as drip irrigation, that will result in efficient crop watering.

Forest Areas

In forest areas, it will be necessary to avoid clear cutting and humans should employ sound forest management. Trees also benefit urban areas that have high rates of runoff. Since water runoff is rapid from roofs, driveways, roads, and parking lots, the water can be collected in cisterns and constructed ponds. Estimated runoff rates from urban area were 72% higher than areas with forest cover.


Given that many aquifers are being over drafted, government efforts are needed to limit the pumping to sustainable withdrawal levels or at the known recharge rate. Integrated water resource management programs offer many opportunities to conserve water resources for everyone, farmers and the public. By the way, i proud of support the best Drill Presses and the Best Woodworking books.

Cost of Water Treatment

Increases in pollution of surface and groundwater resources pose a threat to public and environmental health. Moreover, it lead to the contribution to the high costs of water treatment. Thus, it is further limiting the availability of water for use. Depending on water quality and the purification treatments used, potable water costs an average of 50¢/1,000 liters in the U.S and range up to $1.91/1000 liters in Germany. Appropriate water pricing is important for improved water demand and conservation of water.

Cost of Treating US sewage

The cost of treating U.S. sewage for release into streams and lakes ranges from 55¢/1000 liters for small plants to 30¢/1000 liters for large plants. Sewage effluent is relatively expensive and ranges in costs from $1.00 to $2.65 /1000 liters. All this data happen when properly treated to make it safe for use as potable water.


Purifying and reducing the number of polluting microbes in water, as measured by the BOD (biological oxygen demand), is energy costly. Removing 1 kg of BOD requires 1 kWh. In this process, most of the cost for pumping and delivering water is for energy and equipment. Delivering 1 m3 (1,000 liters) of water in the U.S. requires the expenditure of about 1.3 kWh. Excluding only the energy for pumping sewage, the cost and amount of energy required to process 1000 liters of sewage in a technologically advanced wastewater treatment plant is about 65¢. It also requires about 0.44 kWh of energy. Looking to the future, the costs of water treatment and the energy required to purify water will increase.

On the Ocean

Dependence on the oceans for freshwater has major problems. When brackish water is desalinized, the energy costs are high. It  ranges from 25¢ to 60¢/1000 liters. This figure appears when seawater desalinization ranges from 75¢ to $3/1000 liters. In addition, transporting large volumes of desalinized water adds to the costs.

Loss of Biodiversity

Natural diversity of species is essential to maintaining a quality environment, as well as productive agriculture and forestry. The water required to keep natural ecosystems, especially the plants, functioning has been appropriately termed green water. By the way, i proud of support for the best Makita drill, the best drill bits and wood level, and it also have a good discount for you. Use it or lose it, it is your choice.


The biodiversity of all species throughout the world is adversely affected when water resources are reduced and/or polluted. Thus the drastic drainage of more than half of U.S. wetlands that contain 45% of our federally endangered and threatened species. And it has seriously disrupted these ecosystems. In 2002, approximately 33,000 salmon perished in the Klamath River when farmers were allowed to withdraw increased volumes of water for irrigation.

Effect of Climate Change on Water Availability

Estimates of water resources and their future availability can only be based on present world climate patterns. The continued loss of forests and other vegetation plus the accumulation of carbon dioxide, methane gas, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere are projected to lead to global climate change. Over time, such changes may alter present precipitation and temperature patterns throughout the world. With major shifts in water availability, future agricultural, forestry, biodiversity, and diverse human activities will be impacted.


Pear farmers in the Rogue Valley of Oregon use significant amounts of the water before it reaches the Klamath Lake. Those leave only 616 million m3 of water per year for wildlife and other farmers downstream. Similarly, over pumping and upstream removal of water have reduced biodiversity in the Colorado River and the Rio Grande River. The major alteration of the natural water flow in the lower portion of the U.S. Colorado River has been responsible for 45 species of plants and animals to be listed as federally endangered or threatened.


For example, if as projected, California experiences a 50% decrease in mountain snowpack due to global warming. As a result, this would change both the timing and intensity of seasonal surface water flow. In contrast, Canada might benefit from warming with extended growing seasons, but even this region eventually could face water shortages. If, as projected, the annual temperatures in the U.S. Corn-Belt rise 3 to 4 degrees C, rainfall might decline by about 10%, evaporation rates from the soil may increase and limit corn production in the future.

Effect of Environmental Change on Water Availability

The predicted global warming, along with increased human food requirements can be expected to alter. Hence, it probably increases world irrigation needs by 30% to ensure food security. Other serious impacts of global warming could increase deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity. All of these major changes suggest the reduction of water availability for humans. Likewise for all other living organisms and also for crop and forest production as a result.

Availability of Water Resources

Closely associated with the overall availability of water resources is the problem of water pollution and human diseases. At present, approximately 20% of the world’s population lack safe drinking water, and nearly half the world population lack adequate sanitation. This problem is acute in many developing countries that discharge an estimated 95% of their untreated urban sewage directly into surface waters. For example, of India’s 3119 towns and cities, only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities. Downstream, the untreated water is used for drinking, bathing, and washing, resulting in serious human infections and illnesses.

Waterborne Infections

Overall, waterborne infections account for 90% of all human infectious diseases in developing countries. Lack of sanitary conditions contributes to approximately 12 million deaths each year, primarily among infants and young children. Flooding accounts for about half of the major disasters affecting humans each year.

Fresh Water

Approximately 40% of U.S. fresh water is deemed unfit for recreational or drinking water uses because of contamination with dangerous microorganisms, pesticides, and fertilizers. In the U.S., waterborne infections account for approximately 940,000 infections and approximately 900 deaths each year. In recent decades, more U.S. livestock production systems have moved closer to urban areas, causing water and foods to be contaminated with manure. In the U.S., the quantity of livestock manure and other wastes produced each year are estimated to be 1.5 billion tons. Associated with this kind contamination, the Communicable Disease Center reports that more than 76 million Americans are infected each year with pathogenic E. coli and related food-borne pathogens, resulting in about 5,000 deaths per year.


The incidence of schistosomiasis, which is also associated with contaminated freshwater, is expanding worldwide and each year infects more than 200 million people and currently causes an estimated 20,000 deaths per year. Its spread is associated with an increase in habitats, including the construction of dams and irrigation canals suitable for the snail intermediate-host population and accessible for humans to come in contact with the infected water . For example, construction of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt and related irrigation systems in 1968 led to an explosion in Schistosoma mansoni in the human population; increasing from 5% in 1968 to 77% of all Egyptians in 1993. In 1986, the construction of a dam in Senegal resulted in an increase in schistosomiasis from zero per cent in 1986 to 90% by 1994.


Mosquito-borne malaria is also associated with water bodies. Worldwide this disease presently infects more than 2.4 billion people and kills about 2.7 million each year. Environmental changes, including polluted water, have fostered this high incidence and increase in malaria. For instance, deforestation in parts of Africa exposes land to sunlight and promotes the development of temporary pools of water that favor the breeding of human-biting, malaria-transmitting mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae. In addition, with many African populations doubling every 20 years, more people are living in close proximity to mosquito infested aquatic ecosystems. Concurrently, the mosquito vectors are evolving resistance to insecticides that pollute their aquatic ecosystems, while protozoan pathogens are evolving resistance to the over-used antimalarial drugs. Together these factors are reducing the effectiveness of many malaria control efforts.

Transmitted via Air

Another serious water-borne infectious disease that can be transmitted via air, water, and food, is tuberculosis. At present, approximately 2 billion people are infected with TB with the number increasing each year.

In the Worldwide

Presently, worldwide about 2 billion people are infected with one or more helminth species, either by direct penetration or by use of contaminated water or food. In locations where sanitation is poor and overcrowding is rampant, as in parts of urban Africa, up to 90% of the population may be infected with one or more helminthes.


In addition to helminthes and microbe pathogens, there are many chemicals that contaminate water and have negative impacts on human health as well as natural biota. For example, an estimated 3 billion kg of pesticides are applied worldwide each year in agriculture. USEPA also allowed the application of sludge to agricultural land and this sludge is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxics. Many of these agricultural chemicals, including nitrogen fertilizer, contaminate aquatic ecosystems by leaching and runoff and result in eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems and other environmental problems. Worldwide, pesticides alone contribute to an estimated 26 million human poisonings and 220,000 deaths each year.