Limits to The Water Use

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Cost of Water Treatment

Increases in pollution of surface and groundwater resources pose a threat to public and environmental health. Moreover, it lead to the contribution to the high costs of water treatment. Thus, it is further limiting the availability of water for use. Depending on water quality and the purification treatments used, potable water costs an average of 50¢/1,000 liters in the U.S and range up to $1.91/1000 liters in Germany. Appropriate water pricing is important for improved water demand and conservation of water.

Cost of Treating US sewage

The cost of treating U.S. sewage for release into streams and lakes ranges from 55¢/1000 liters for small plants to 30¢/1000 liters for large plants. Sewage effluent is relatively expensive and ranges in costs from $1.00 to $2.65 /1000 liters. All this data happen when properly treated to make it safe for use as potable water.


Purifying and reducing the number of polluting microbes in water, as measured by the BOD (biological oxygen demand), is energy costly. Removing 1 kg of BOD requires 1 kWh. In this process, most of the cost for pumping and delivering water is for energy and equipment. Delivering 1 m3 (1,000 liters) of water in the U.S. requires the expenditure of about 1.3 kWh. Excluding only the energy for pumping sewage, the cost and amount of energy required to process 1000 liters of sewage in a technologically advanced wastewater treatment plant is about 65¢. It also requires about 0.44 kWh of energy. Looking to the future, the costs of water treatment and the energy required to purify water will increase.

On the Ocean

Dependence on the oceans for freshwater has major problems. When brackish water is desalinized, the energy costs are high. It  ranges from 25¢ to 60¢/1000 liters. This figure appears when seawater desalinization ranges from 75¢ to $3/1000 liters. In addition, transporting large volumes of desalinized water adds to the costs.

Loss of Biodiversity

Natural diversity of species is essential to maintaining a quality environment, as well as productive agriculture and forestry. The water required to keep natural ecosystems, especially the plants, functioning has been appropriately termed green water. By the way, i proud of support for the best Makita drill, the best drill bits and wood level, and it also have a good discount for you. Use it or lose it, it is your choice.


The biodiversity of all species throughout the world is adversely affected when water resources are reduced and/or polluted. Thus the drastic drainage of more than half of U.S. wetlands that contain 45% of our federally endangered and threatened species. And it has seriously disrupted these ecosystems. In 2002, approximately 33,000 salmon perished in the Klamath River when farmers were allowed to withdraw increased volumes of water for irrigation.

Effect of Climate Change on Water Availability

Estimates of water resources and their future availability can only be based on present world climate patterns. The continued loss of forests and other vegetation plus the accumulation of carbon dioxide, methane gas, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere are projected to lead to global climate change. Over time, such changes may alter present precipitation and temperature patterns throughout the world. With major shifts in water availability, future agricultural, forestry, biodiversity, and diverse human activities will be impacted.


Pear farmers in the Rogue Valley of Oregon use significant amounts of the water before it reaches the Klamath Lake. Those leave only 616 million m3 of water per year for wildlife and other farmers downstream. Similarly, over pumping and upstream removal of water have reduced biodiversity in the Colorado River and the Rio Grande River. The major alteration of the natural water flow in the lower portion of the U.S. Colorado River has been responsible for 45 species of plants and animals to be listed as federally endangered or threatened.


For example, if as projected, California experiences a 50% decrease in mountain snowpack due to global warming. As a result, this would change both the timing and intensity of seasonal surface water flow. In contrast, Canada might benefit from warming with extended growing seasons, but even this region eventually could face water shortages. If, as projected, the annual temperatures in the U.S. Corn-Belt rise 3 to 4 degrees C, rainfall might decline by about 10%, evaporation rates from the soil may increase and limit corn production in the future.

Effect of Environmental Change on Water Availability

The predicted global warming, along with increased human food requirements can be expected to alter. Hence, it probably increases world irrigation needs by 30% to ensure food security. Other serious impacts of global warming could increase deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity. All of these major changes suggest the reduction of water availability for humans. Likewise for all other living organisms and also for crop and forest production as a result.

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